Digital Photography Terms

ISO/ASA:

  • Sensitivity to light rating of a digital sensor
  • Lower ISO means less sensitive, higher means more sensitive
  • Speed: 100, 400, 1600 (doubles)
  • Digital sensors have increasing ‘noise’ the higher the ISO
  • ‘Noise’ occurs mainly in shadow
  • 200 ISO is the general
  • 150 ISO is best for exposure

 

Lens – Focal Length:

  • Wide angle Lens (‘squashes’ the top to the bottom and ‘vignette’ – darkens corners)
  • 24mm is wider than 26mm
  • Also portrait, standard and telephoto
  • You can create perspective and distort photographs

 

Shutter Speed:

  • The amount of time light is allowed to enter the camera through the lens
  • The lens open and close for a moment in time
  • Measurement: whole and fractions of a second (1 second to a 1000th of a second)
  • Each shutter speed is half/double the previous

 

Aperature:

  • The opening in the lens which controls the amount of light  entering the camera
  • Measurement: f-stops (fractions of a whole number)
  • The longer the f-stop number the smaller the opening and less light will pass
  • The higher the f-stop number will halve the amount of light entering
  • The smaller the f-stop number will double the amount of light entering

 

Depth of Field:

  • Not the same as focus
  • Greater focus when there is less focus on the centre

 

Exposure:

  • The total amount of light which falls on the film plane
  • The balance between exposure, aperture, ISO, shutter speed etc.

 

Bracketing:

  • Taking an under-exposed, average and over-exposed image and digitally merging them together to create the desired/correct exposure

 

White Balance:

  • To maintain/retain colour, making the colours as realistic as they are shot  

 

These terms are the basic terms I need to familiarize myself with to begin the course. I will be able to further development my skills by understanding and using these techniques.

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